Tropical & austral Africa.


Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Dem. Congo, Zaire, Central Africa, Angola, Zambia.
Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Lesotho.


  1. AmblerCharles 1990, Alcohol, Racial Segregation and Popular Politics in Northern Rhodesia, The Journal of African History 31(2), 295:313.
    • Racial policy, discriminatory legislation on alcohol and beer halls in Rhodesia between the 40's and 50's, before the independence of Zambia.
  2. Ankei Takako 1996, Comment consomme-t-on le manioc dans la forêt du Zaïre? Essai sur l'évolution de la technologie culinaire des Songola. In Cuisines, Reflets des Sociétés, Marie Claire Bataille-Benguigui & Françoise Cousin, 57:67.
    • Recounts the arrival of the Amerindian cassava on the African coast in the 16th century, introduced by the Portuguese. Evolution of the detoxification methods applied on bitter cassava, and impact on the African brewing techniques (Congo). 4 routes of penetration of cassava in tropical Africa, four different methods. This is related to the brewing technique with amylolytic ferments used in Zambia.
  3. Aucamp M. C., Grieff J. T., Novellie L., Papendick B., Schwartz H. M., Steer A. G. 1961, Kaffircorn Malting And Brewing Studies. VIII. - Nutritive Value of some Kaffircorn Products, Journla of Science in Food & Agriculure 12, 449:456. 
  4. Barouin Catherine 2001, De la bière de banane au soda en bouteille, Religion et boisson chez les Rwa du Mont Meru, Tanzanie du Nord, Journaldes Africanistes 71(2), 77:94.
  5. Beek Walter van 2011, The Gender of Beer: Beer, Symbolism among Kapsiki/Higi and the Dogon. In Liquid Bread. Beer and Brewing in Cross-Cultural Perspective ed. by Wulf Schiefenhövel & Hellen Macbeth, 147:157.
  6. Beek Walter van 2002, Kapsiki Beer Dynamics. In Ressources vivrières et choix alimentaires dans le bassin du Tchad 2002 E. Garine, O. Langlois, C. Raimond (ed.), 477:499.
  7. Beek Walter van 1978, Bierbrouwers in de bergen: De Kapsiki en Higi van Noord-Kameroen en Noord-Oost Nigeria. Thesis. Instituut voor Culturele Antropologie.
  8. Bernier G., Lambrechts A. 1959, Sur les boissons fermentées indigènes du Katanga. Mémoire de l'Académie des Sciences Naturelles et Médicales 8°, nov. serie 9 (7), 44 p.
  9. Brownlee Frank 1933, Native Beer in South Africa, Man 33, 75-76.
    • An old but very accurate description of the brewing of sorghum in Lesotho.
  10. Chan-Sam Tanya  1992, The Mohjadji, Agenda Culture and Tradition 13, 27:28.
    • A Queen of the rain who is offered beer in northern Transvaal.
  11. Crush Jonathan, Ambler Charles (eds.) 1992, Liquor and Labor in Southern Africa (Athens and Pietermaritzburg).
  12. Davies Gareth 2003, L'élaboration de la "bière" de banane en Ouganda : une comparaison de deux procédés artisanaux, ECHO du COTA 64, 3:9.
  13. Davison Patricia 1985, Southern African Beer Pots, African Arts 18(3), 74:98.
    • Zulu beer pots, manufacturing and design.
  14. Delaude Clément, Mulkay Paul, Ngoy Kinamashinda, Pauwels Luc 1993, Munkoyo, les boissons fermentées africaines, Ed. A. Degive.
    • Technical description of African fermented beverages (beer, wine palm) and especially the munkoyo brewed in Zaire (Shaba Province) with corn or sorghumn and saccharifying roots.
  15. Diduk Susan 1993,European Alcohol, History, and the State in Cameroon, African Studies Review 36(1), 1:42.
  16. Edoumba Pierre 1996, Les produits du manioc dans le commerce du fleuve Congo. In Cuisines, Reflets des Sociétés, Marie Claire Bataille-Benguigui & Françoise Cousin, 69:76.
    • Evolution of the detoxification methods of the cassava. It supplements Ankei 1996.
  17. Gaidashova S. V., Okech S. H.O., Gold C. S., Nyagahungu I. 2005, Why beer bananas? The case for Rwanda, InfoMusa 14(1), 2:6.
  18. Gensi R.M., Kyamuhangire W., Carasco J.F. 2000, Traditional Production Method and Storage Characteristics for Banana Beer (Tonto) in Uganda, Proceedings I. Int. Symp. on Banana and Plantain for Africa, K. Craenen et al (Eds), 569:574.
  19. Gewald Jan-Bart 2002, Diluting Drinks and Deepening Discontent: Colonial Liquor Controls and Public Resistance in Windhoek, Namibia. In Alcohol in Africa. Mixing Business, Pleasure and Politics, ed. D. F. Bryceson, 117-136. Portsmouth NH.
  20. Holzapfel W. H. 1991, Industrialisation of mageu (mahewu) and sorghum beer fermentation. In Traditional African Foods Quality and Nutrition, ed. International Foundation for Science (IFS), 79-86. Stockholm / Sweden.
  21. Johnston Thomas F. 1973, The Cultural Role of Tsonga Beer-Drink Music, Yearbook of the International Folk Music Council 5, 132:155.
  22. Krige E. J. 1932, The social significance of beer among the Balobedu, Bantu Studies 6, 343:357.
  23. Kuper Hilda 1972, A Royal Ritual in a Changing Political Context, Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines 48, 591:615.
    • After the war between Boer, British, and Swazi peoples , the Royal Swazi ritual has been maintained after 1894 and the lost of Swazi's political independance. This royal celebration is celebrated every year and involves a high consumption of meat, beans and sorghum beer.
  24. Kyamuhangire William, Asked Julian, Gensi Robert 1995, The level and extent of banana beverage processing in Uganda. Musafrica 7, 8:11.
  25. La Hausse P. 1988, Brewers, Beerhalls and Boycotts: A History of Liquor in South Africa. Johannesburg.
  26. Lansdown C. W. A. 1983, South African Liquor Law (Cape Town, I983), 332-44.
  27. LevinsohnRhoda 1980, Rural Kwazulu Basketry, African Arts 14(1), 52:88.
  28. Lovelace C. E. A. 1977, Estimation of nutrient content oftwo fermented beverages from Zambia opaque maize beer and munkoyo. Symposium on Indigineous Fermented Foods, Bangkok, Thailand.
  29. Mager Anne 1999, The First Decade of 'European Beer' in Apartheid South Africa: The State, the Brewers and the Drinking Public, 1962-72. Journal of African History 40(3), 367-388.
  30. Mager Anne Kelk 2005, ‘One Beer, One Goal, One Nation, One Soul’: South African Breweries, Heritage, Masculinity and Nationalism 1960–1999, Past & Present 188, 163:194.
  31. Maloka Tshidiso 1997, Khomo Lia Oela: Canteens, Brothels and Labour Migrancy in Colonial Lesotho, 1900-40, The Journal of African History 38(1), 101:122.
  32. McAllister Patrick A. 1993, Indigeneous Beer in Soutern Africa. African Studies 52(1), 71:88.
  33. McAllister Patrick A. 2001, Building the homestead. Agriculture, labour and beer in South Africa's Transkei. African Studies Centre Leiden.
  34. McAllister Patrick 2003, Culture, Practice, and the Semantics of Xhosa Beer-Drinking, Ethnology 42(3), 187:207.
  35. McAllister Patrick 2004a, Domestic Space, Habitus, and Xhosa Ritual Beer-Drinking, Ethnology 43(2), 117:135.
  36. McAllister Patrick 2004b, Labor and Beer in the Transkei,  South Africa: Xhosa Work Parties in Historical and Contemporary Perspective, Human Organization 63(1), 100:111.
  37. McAllister Patrick A. 2006, Xhosa Beer Drinking Rituals. Power, Practice and Performance in the South African Rural Periphery. Carolina Academic Press, Durham, North Carolina.
    • A major and comprehensive study. Multiple roles of beer : rituals of war, palaver, beer and agricultural works, social bonds, distribution and consumption of the traditionnal beer. History in South Africa.
  38. Ngokwey Ndolamb 1987, Varieties of palm wine among the Lele of the Kasai. In Constructive Drinking 1987, Mary Douglas (ed), Cambridge University Press, Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 113:121.
    • In Zaire, palm wine rubs shoulders with another cultural areas where beer predominantes.
  39. Novellie L. Kaffircorn malting and brewing studies. 3. Determination of amylases in kaffircorn malts. J Sci Food Agric 1959;10:441-49.
  40. Novellie L. 1956 à 1966, Kaffircorn mallting and brewing studies I – XV, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 7 à 17.
    • An extensive systematic study to replace the barley by the sorghum in the brewing industry of South Africa. Barley is ill-suited to the climate and soils of southern Africa. The goal is to change the industrial brewing process as it came from Europe. Sorghum african varieties suitable for malting, barley malting process adapted to sorghum, brewing, wort clarification, fermentation, etc.
  41. Novellie L. 1966a, Bantu beer : popular drink in South Africa, Institute of Brewer and Distiller 1, 27:31.
    • The traditional beers of the Bantu peoples and "kaffir beer" wrongly refers to the same kind of beer.
  42. Novellie L. 1966b, Biological ennoblement and kaffir beer, Food Technology 20, 1607:1608.
    • A precursor article which has rehabilitated beer as a source of vitamins and amino acids (see Platt 1955).
  43. Novellie L. 1968, Kaffir beer brewing, ancient art and modern industry, Wallerstein Laboratories Communication 31, 17:29.
    • The industrial brewery takes over the traditional brewing of the "kaffir beer" in cities and townships of South Africa.
  44. Novellie L. 1976, Beverages from sorghum and millets, Proceedings Int. Assoc. For Cereal Chemistry, 73:77.
  45. Olbrich Hubert 2002, Zur Brauwirtschaft im südlichen Afrika. Gesellschaft für die Geschichte und Bibliographie des Brauwesens, Jahrbuch 2003, 179:204.
    • Specific historical situation of South Africa. An African alive brewing tradition (sorghum beer) coexists with an industrial brewery imported from Western Europe. Both types of brewery are confronted in a violent political and racial context.
  46. Ossebi Henri 1986, La bière et le bar à Brazzaville : Primus contre Kronembourg. Actes du colloque Brazzaville avril 1986, 557:565.
    • Article very dated, image of Africa as a playground for major European brewing groups. Primus (Belgium) wins against Kronenbourg (France).
  47. Pauwels Luc, Mulkay Paul, Ngoy Kinamashinda, Delaude Clément 1992, Eminia, Rhynchosia et Vigna (Fabacées) à Complexes Amylolytiques employés dans la région zambésienne pour la fabrication de la Bière «Munkoyo», Belgian Journal of Botanic 125(1), 41:60.
  48. Platt B. S. 1955, Some Traditional Alcoholic Beverages and their Importance in Indigenous African Communities. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 14(2), 115:124.
    Platt, Some Traditional Alcoholic Beverages ...
  49. Poot A. 1954, Le Munkoyo, boisson des indigènes Bapende (Katanga), Bulletin de l'Institut Royal Colonial Belge 25(1), 386:389.
  50. Rogerson M. 1986, A Strange Case of Beer: The State and Sorghum Beer Manufacture in South Africa, Area 18(1), 15:24.
  51. Rwabukumba Joseph, Mudandagizi Vincent 1974, Les formes historiques de la dépendance personnelle dans l'Etat rwandais, Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines 53, 6:25.
    • In the early 20th century, each Rwandan must seek a protection by a more powerful man or clan. It is obtained against repeated gifts with cows, batches of beans, and jars of beer, according to the means of each.
  52. Tjeega Paul 1977, Le vin de palme dans la société traditionnelle Basaa (Cameroun), Notes Africaines (IFAN) 156, 85:94.
  53. Vidal Claudine 1974, Economie de la société féodale rwandaise, Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines 53, 52:74.
  54. Willis Justin 2001,'Beer Used to Belong to Older Men': Drink and Authority among the Nyakyusa of Tanzania, Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 71(3), 373:390.
  55. Willis Justin 2002, For women and children: an economic history of brewing among the Nuyakyusa of Southern Tanzania, In Bryceson (ed.), Alcohol in Africa. Mixing business, pleasure and politics, 55:74.
  56. Wolcott Harry F. 1974, The African Beer Gardens of Bulawayo: Integrated Drinking in a Segregated Society, Center of Alcohol Studies, Monograph No. 10.
  57. Zulu R.M., Dillon V.M., OwensJ.D., Munkoyo beverage, a traditional Zambian fermented maize gruel using Rhynchosiaroot as amylase source, International Journal of Food Microbiology 34, 249:258.



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22/05/2020  Christian Berger