STARCH AMYLOLYSIS & FERMENTATIONS.
This section includes the researches undertaken by ethno-archaeologists and nutritionists. Their technical descriptions of traditional beers enter fully within the scope of our studies. Similarly, the old brewing manuals published in Europe since the 17th century mark the evolution of Western brewery and its relationship with science. In contrast, books written for the professionals of food chains and the scientific articles provided by research laboratories are not listed. These publications are subject to specialized bibliographies that do not directly address the history of beer, nor the brewing in its wider sense given by Beer-Studies.
The literature about amylolysis and fermentations (alcoholic, lactic, acetic) is classified according to the 6 Brewing Paths.
The flavoring of beer and the means to preserve it have aroused a vast literature for centuries. The interrelationships between science and brewing are studied since the 19th century.
- Blandino A., Al-Aseeri M.E., Pandiella S., Cantero D., Webb C. 2003, Cereal-based fermented foods and beverages, Food Research International 36, 527:543.
- A review (microbiology) of various kinds of beers: Western beer, sake (Japan), bouza (Egypt), chicha (Peru), mahewu (Africa, Middle East?) Boza (Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey).
- Darby W. J. 1979, The Nutrient Contributions of Fermented Beverages. In Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition, ed. Clifford F. Gastineau, William J. Darby, Thomas B. Turner, Academic Press, 61:79.
- Summary of nutritional benefits brought by foods and fermented beverages. Call for a systematic analysis of these traditional foods.
- Djien Ko Swan 1982, Indigenous Fermented Foods. In Fermented Foods, ed. A. H. Rose. Academic Press, Economic Microbiology Series Vol. 7, 15:38.
- This synthesis replaces beer at the heart of a vast set of food techniques based on acidic or alcoholic fermentations and operating on various substrates: starch, proteins (meat, fish), vegetables, milk, sweet juices,… In the same orbit as Steinkraus (1979 and 1996).
- Haard Norman, Odunfa, Lee Cherl-Ho, Qintero-Ramirez 1999, Fermented Cereals. A Global perspective (FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin n° 138).
- Panorama général des bières dans le monde. Afrique, Asie (Chine, Japon, Corée), Amérique du sud (chicha, tesguïno, …)
- Krampitz, L. 1979, Biochemistry of Fermentation. In Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition, ed. Clifford F. Gastineau, William J. Darby, Thomas B. Turner, Academic Press, 99:104.
- The future of fermentation research, after the huge investments made in petroleum chemistry in the 20th century.
- Olasunpo N. A., Odunfa S. A., Obayori O. S. 2010, Ethnic African Fermented Foods. In Fermented Food and Beverages of the World, ed. Jyoti Prakash Tamang, Kasipathy Kailasapathy, CRC Press, 323:352.
- Brewing process and microbiology of African beers: pito, kaffir, bussa, malawa, merissa, sekete, bouza, talla, kishk..
- Steinkraus Keith H. 1979, Nutrionally Significant Indigenous Foods Involving and Alcoholic Fermentation. In Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition, ed. Clifford Gastineau, William Darby, Thomas Turner, Academic Press,36:59.
- Key article of a nutritionist agronomist turned to traditional processes to find inexpensive solutions for enriching and preserving food (vitamins, amino acids, etc.). Results: the description of the processes that have resisted industrialization and their rehabilitation in a strategy to contend the food deficiencies in emerging or poor countries. From a biotechnology point of view, the author compares and puts Western (malting-fermentation) and Asian (amylolysis with mold-yeast coupling) processes at the same level. A big step towards the recognition of a technological trunk common to Western and Asian brewing methods.
- Steinkraus Keith H. ed. 1996, Handbook of Indigenous Fermented Foods. 2nd edition. Dekker, NY.
- An encyclopedia of traditional brewing processes with their diagrams and technical notices. Steinkraus organizes the classification of the various processes and coordinates this publication. It follows the symposium organized in Bangkok in 1977 (Manual 1st ed. 1983). Part 4 (pp. 363-508) covers fermented drinks. The articles are written by each specialist in a region or type of food. It was tedious to create a reference for each articles. The pages of Beer-studies refer to these notices published by Steinkraus.
- Tamang Jyoti Prakash, Samuel Delwen 2010, Dietetary Cultures and Antiquity of Fermented Foods and Beverages. In Fermented Food and Beverages of the World, ed. Jyoti Prakash Tamang, Kasipathy Kailasapathy, CRC Press, 1:40.
- Fermented foods and dietetics from major religious areas: Hindu, Buddhist, Christian and Muslim. Antiquity of fermented drinks (pp 22-30).
- Tamang Jyoti Prakash 2010. Diversity of Fermented Beverages and Alcoholic Drinks. In Fermented Food and Beverages of the World, ed. Jyoti Prakash Tamang, Kasipathy Kailasapathy, CRC Press, 85:126.
- IVery rich inventory of the various kinds of beer in the world, and especially of the methods for brewing them: amylolytic ferments (koji, marcha, ragi, bubod, nuruk, loogpang, men, jiu-yueh, hamei, mana, manapu) and beer obtained (sake, basi, yakju, brem, krachae), insalivation (chicha), malting (bantu / kaffir beer, pito, tchoukoutou). The lists compiled by Jyoti Prakash Tamang are not exhaustive. They pave the way for more complete inventories.
- Todhunter E. Neige 1979, A Historical Perspective on Fermentation Biochemistry and Nutrition. In Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition, ed. Clifford F. Gastineau, William J. Darby, Thomas B. Turner, Academic Press, 61:79.
- Recent knowledge on yeasts and the analysis of old residues of fermented drinks have renewed the question of old fermented drinks. The synthesis of the crossed progress of science and brewing techniques remains useful.
The 6 Brewing Paths (or Brewing Technologies)
Click one of the 6 brewing paths below or navigate through the left menu.
For the scientific overall studies on beer, consult "Science and technology".