Since the end of 18th century, the manufacture of beer has provided to scholars many scientific issues gradually solved in Europe and Asia. In turn, the scientific approach of the brewing processes has drove the brewery toward its transformation as a food tech industry.


  1. Anonymous 1768, Every Man His Own Brewer. Reprint Raudins Publishing 2003.
  2. Basarová Gabriela 2003, Der legendäre böhmische Brauer František Ondrej Poupe (Franz Andreas Paupie) 1753-1805. Gesellschaft für die Geschichte und Bibliographie des Brauwesens, Jahrbuch 2003, 128:146.
    • Poupe published in Prague in 1794 a scientific and technical book which lays the foundations of the modern scientific brewery,"Die Kunst des Bierbrauens physisch-chemisch-ökonomisch beschrieben".
  3. Basarová Gabriela 2004, Der Beitrag des böhmischen Professors Tadéáš Hajek aus Hájek (Thaddaeus Hagecius ab Hayck) zum Brauwesen des 16. Jahrhunderts. Gesellschaft für die Geschichte und Bibliographie des Brauwesens, Jahrbuch 2004, 113:132.
  4. Basarová Gabriela 2005, Professor At The Prague Polytechnic Carl Joseph Napoleon Balling (1805–1868), Kvasný Prumysl 4, 130-135.
  5. Boutibonnes Philippe 1994, Van Leeuwenhoek, l'exercice du regard. Belin
  6. Brande W. 1830 (circa), The Town and Country Brewery Book. Reprint Raudins Publishing 2003.
  7. Bryggeriteknisk ordlista 1971, Glossary with definitions of brewery terms in Swedish – English – German – French, Swedish Center of Technical Terminology.
  8. Byrn M.L. 1852, The Complete Practical Brewer, Reprint Raudins Publishing 2005.
  9. Cahiers de Sciences et Vie (Les). Les Grandes experiences de la physique. N° spécial 29 1996. James Joule. De l'art de la bière à la physique ou comment il a mesuré le rapport entre travail et chaleur. (96 p.)
    • This exceptional file is a detailed explanation of Joule's experiences in his Manchester brewery, the scientific and social context of his time, and his experimental method. He succeded to measure the conversion of mechanical work to heat thanks to his brewing apparatus, his expertise in thermometer usage, his deep knowledge of the brewing processes, and his definite interest in physics.
  10. Calmette A. 1892, Contribution à l’étude des ferments de l’amidon. La levure chinoise. Annales de l’Institut Pasteur 6, 604-620.
  11. Ceccatti John Simmons 2001, Science in the Brewery: pure yeast culture and the transformation of brewing practices in Germany at the end of the 19th century. PhD. University of Chicago.
  12. Cernohorská Marie, Frantík František 2005, One Hundred Eighteenth Anniversary Of Research Institute Of Brewing And Malting, Kvasný Prumysl 4, 136-140.
  13. Child Samuel 1802, Every Man His Own Brewer, 10th edition. Reprint Raudins Publishing 2003.
  14. Combrune Michael 1762, The Theory and Practice of Brewing, London. Reprint Raudins Publishing 2004.
  15. Cornish-BowdenAthel 1997, New Beer in an Old Bottle: Eduard Buchner and the Growth of Biochemical Knowledge.
  16. Findlay W. P. K. 1971, Modern Brewing Technology. MacMillan Press
    • A compilation of articles on the classic processes of the Western brewery. From malt to beer packaging, including malt, wort, hops and yeast. By brewers and brewery managers.
  17. Forbes R. J. 1953, Studies in Ancient Technology, Volume III : boissons alcooliques (bière, vin, vinaigre).
  18. Freudental Gunter 2003, Von Wettergläsern, Wärmemessern und Bier-Waagen und den Anfängen der Betriebskontrolle. Gesellschaft für die Geschichte und Bibliographie des Brauwesens, Jahrbuch 2003, 53:78.
    • The contribution of the first meteorological measurements, those of the heat and the density of liquids in the technological evolution of the brewery in Europe.
  19. Gall Alan 2004,James Joule – Brewer and Man of Science,
  20. Habib Irfan 2000, Joseph Needham and the History of Indian Technology, Indian Journal of History of Science 33(3), 245:274.
    • A particular point pp. 265-270 on distillation and its Indian origins, a point still very controversial.
  21. Hughes P. S., Baxter E.D. 2001, Beer Quality, Safety and Nutritional Aspects, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge.
  22. Jalowetz Eduard 1930, Pilsner Bier im Lichte von Praxis und Wissenschaft, Verlag Institut für Gärungsindustrie, Wien.
    • This study traces the birth of the lager-beer type, its technical characteristics and its commercial success. Beyond the legends.
  23. Lauring Af Palle 1961, J. C. Jacobsen, Hans liv og gerning, G. E. C. Gads Forlag, København.
  24. Lietz Peter 2003, Die Bedeutung der Bierhefe in Verlauf der Entwicklung der Bierherstellung. Gesellschaft für die Geschichte und Bibliographie des Brauwesens, Jahrbuch 2003, 79:127.
    • The discovery of the role of yeast and the contribution of brewers in Europe.
  25. Mikuláš Teich 2005, A Chapter in the History of Transfer of Information on Attenuation, Brewery History 121 (Winter 2005).
  26. Moir Michael 2000, Hops — A Millennium Review, Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists 58(4), 131:146.
    • One of the most comprehensive survey on hops, its role and its history in brewery. Scrapped many legendary tales about it. Original contribution on science and technology in understanding the chemistry of a and ß acids in hops between 1900 and 1989. Conclusion : "No beer without hops !".
  27. Pasteur Louis 1876, Etudes sur la bière. Réed. In Œuvres de Pasteur, Tome V, Masson éd. 1928.
  28. Payen, Persoz 1833, Mémoire sur la Diastase, les principaux Produits de ses réactions, et leurs applications aux arts industriels, Annales de chimie et de physique, 2e série, t. 53, 73-92.
  29. Roberts W. H. 1847, The Scottish Ale-Brewer and Practical Malster. Reprint Raudins Publishing 2003.
  30. Ruestow Edward 1984, Leeuwenhoek and the campaign against spontaneous generation, Journal of the History of Biology 17 (2), 225-248.
  31. Sibum H. Otto, Morel Ginette 1998, Les gestes de la mesure. Joule, les pratiques de la brasserie et la science. Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales. 53è année, N. 4-5, 745-774.
  32. Sumner James 2004, The metric tun : standardisation, quantification and industrialisation in the British brewing industry, 1760-1830. PhD thesis, University of Leeds.
    • Brewery in Great Britain around 1800: first standardization of brewing processes and metrics. The influence of the saccharometer introduced by John Richardson and the general trend towards a scientific brewery from 1830.
  33. Sumer James 2005, Early heat determination in the brewery, Brewery History 121 (Winter 2005).
  34. Sumer James 2007, "Michael Combrune, Peter Shaw and commercial chemistry: the Boerhaavian chemical origins of brewing thermometry", Ambix 54(1), 5:29.
  35. Todhunter E. Neige 1979, A Historical Perspective on Fermentation Biochemistry and Nutrition. In Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition, ed. Clifford F. Gastineau, William J. Darby, Thomas B. Turner, Academic Press, 61:79.
    • The recent knowledge on yeasts and the analysis of old residues of fermented drinks have renewed the question of old fermented drinks. A synthetic view of the crossed progress of science and brewing techniques remains useful. Also a brief history of the chemistry of fermentations and the discovery of zymase, the enzyme of beer alcoholic fermentation.


22/05/2020  Christian Berger